Extending Heka

The core of the Heka engine is written in the Go programming language. Heka supports five different types of plugins (inputs, decoders, filters, encoders, and outputs), which are also written in Go. This document will try to provide enough information for developers to extend Heka by implementing their own custom plugins. It assumes a small amount of familiarity with Go, although any reasonably experienced programmer will probably be able to follow along with no trouble.

NOTE: Heka also supports the use of security sandboxed Lua code for implementing the core logic of decoder, filter, and encoder plugins. This document only covers the development of Go plugins. You can learn more about sandboxed plugins in the Sandbox section.


You should be familiar with the Glossary terminology before proceeding.


Each Heka plugin type performs a specific task: inputs receive input from the outside world and inject the data into the Heka pipeline, decoders turn binary data into Message objects that Heka can process, filters perform arbitrary processing of Heka message data, encoders serialize Heka messages into arbitrary byte streams, and outputs send data from Heka back to the outside world. Each specific plugin has some custom behaviour, but it also shares behaviour w/ every other plugin of that type. A UDPInput and a TCPInput listen on the network differently, and a LogstreamerInput (reading files off the file system) doesn’t listen on the network at all, but all of these inputs need to interact w/ the Heka system to access data structures, gain access to decoders to which we pass our incoming data, respond to shutdown and other system events, etc.

To support this all Heka plugins except encoders actually consist of two parts: the plugin itself, and an accompanying “plugin runner”. Inputs have an InputRunner, decoders have a DecoderRunner, filters have a FilterRunner, and Outputs have an OutputRunner. The plugin itself contains the plugin-specific behaviour, and is provided by the plugin developer. The plugin runner contains the shared (by type) behaviour, and is provided by Heka. When Heka starts a plugin, it a) creates and configures a plugin instance of the appropriate type, b) creates a plugin runner instance of the appropriate type (passing in the plugin), and c) calls the Start method of the plugin runner. Most plugin runners (all except decoders) then call the plugin’s Run method, passing themselves and an additional PluginHelper object in as arguments so the plugin code can use their exposed APIs to interact w/ the Heka system.

For inputs, filters, and outputs, there’s a 1:1 correspondence between sections specified in the config file and running plugin instances. This is not the case for decoders and encoders, however. Decoder and encoder sections register possible configurations, but actual decoder and encoder instances aren’t created until they are used by input or output plugins.

Plugin Configuration

Heka uses a slightly modified version of TOML as its configuration file format (see: Configuring hekad), and provides a simple mechanism through which plugins can integrate with the configuration loading system to initialize themselves from settings in hekad’s config file.

The minimal shared interface that a Heka plugin must implement in order to use the config system is (unsurprisingly) Plugin, defined in pipeline_runner.go:

type Plugin interface {
    Init(config interface{}) error

During Heka initialization an instance of every plugin listed in the configuration file will be created. The TOML configuration for each plugin will be parsed and the resulting configuration object will be passed in to the above specified Init method. The argument is of type interface{}. By default the underlying type will be *pipeline.PluginConfig, a map object that provides config data as key/value pairs. There is also a way for plugins to specify a custom struct to be used instead of the generic PluginConfig type (see Custom Plugin Config Structs). In either case, the config object will be already loaded with values read in from the TOML file, which your plugin code can then use to initialize itself. The input, filter, and output plugins will then be started so they can begin processing messages. The decoder and encoder instances will be thrown away, with new ones created as needed when requested by input (for decoder) or output (for encoder) plugins.

As an example, imagine we’re writing a filter that will deliver messages to a specific output plugin, but only if they come from a list of approved hosts. Both ‘hosts’ and ‘output’ would be required in the plugin’s config section. Here’s one version of what the plugin definition and Init method might look like:

type HostFilter struct {
    hosts  map[string]bool
    output string

// Extract hosts value from config and store it on the plugin instance.
func (f *HostFilter) Init(config interface{}) error {
    var (
        hostsConf  interface{}
        hosts      []interface{}
        host       string
        outputConf interface{}
        ok         bool
    conf := config.(pipeline.PluginConfig)
    if hostsConf, ok = conf["hosts"]; !ok {
        return errors.New("No 'hosts' setting specified.")
    if hosts, ok = hostsConf.([]interface{}); !ok {
        return errors.New("'hosts' setting not a sequence.")
    if outputConf, ok = conf["output"]; !ok {
        return errors.New("No 'output' setting specified.")
    if f.output, ok = outputConf.(string); !ok {
        return errors.New("'output' setting not a string value.")
    f.hosts = make(map[string]bool)
    for _, h := range hosts {
        if host, ok = h.(string); !ok {
            return errors.New("Non-string host value.")
        f.hosts[host] = true
    return nil

(Note that this is a bit of a contrived example. In practice, you would generally route messages to specific outputs using the Message Matcher Syntax.)

Restarting Plugins

In the event that your plugin fails to initialize properly at startup, hekad will exit. However, once hekad is running, if the plugin should fail (perhaps because a network connection dropped, a file became unavailable, etc), then the plugin will exit. If your plugin supports being restarted then when it exits it will be recreated, and restarted until it exhausts its max retry attempts. At which point it will exit, and heka will shutdown if not configured with can_exit.

To add restart support to your plugin, the Restarting interface defined in the config.go file:

type Restarting interface {

A plugin that implements this interface will not trigger shutdown should it fail while hekad is running. The CleanupForRestart method will be called when the plugins’ main run method exits, a single time. Then the runner will repeatedly call the plugins Init method until it initializes successfully. It will then resume running it unless it exits again at which point the restart process will begin anew.

Custom Plugin Config Structs

In simple cases it might be fine to get plugin configuration data as a generic map of keys and values, but if there are more than a couple of config settings then checking for, extracting, and validating the values quickly becomes a lot of work. Heka plugins can instead specify a schema struct for their configuration data, into which the TOML configuration will be decoded.

Plugins that wish to provide a custom configuration struct should implement the HasConfigStruct interface defined in the config.go file:

type HasConfigStruct interface {
    ConfigStruct() interface{}

Any plugin that implements this method should return a struct that can act as the schema for the plugin configuration. Heka’s config loader will then try to decode the plugin’s TOML config into this struct. Note that this also gives you a way to specify default config values; you just populate your config struct as desired before returning it from the ConfigStruct method.

Let’s look at the code for Heka’s UdpOutput, which delivers messages to a UDP listener somewhere. The initialization code looks as follows:

// This is our plugin struct.
type UdpOutput struct {
    conn net.Conn

// This is our plugin's config struct
type UdpOutputConfig struct {
    // Network type ("udp", "udp4", "udp6", or "unixgram"). Needs to match the
    // input type.
    Net string
    // String representation of the address of the network connection to which
    // we will be sending out packets (e.g. "").
    Address string
    // Optional address to use as the local address for the connection.
    LocalAddress string `toml:"local_address"`

// Provides pipeline.HasConfigStruct interface.
func (o *UdpOutput) ConfigStruct() interface{} {
    return &UdpOutputConfig{
        Net: "udp",

// Initialize UDP connection
func (o *UdpOutput) Init(config interface{}) (err error) {
    o.UdpOutputConfig = config.(*UdpOutputConfig) // assert we have the right config type

    if o.Net == "unixgram" {
        if runtime.GOOS == "windows" {
            return errors.New("Can't use Unix datagram sockets on Windows.")
        var unixAddr, lAddr *net.UnixAddr
        unixAddr, err = net.ResolveUnixAddr(o.Net, o.Address)
        if err != nil {
            return fmt.Errorf("Error resolving unixgram address '%s': %s", o.Address,
        if o.LocalAddress != "" {
            lAddr, err = net.ResolveUnixAddr(o.Net, o.LocalAddress)
            if err != nil {
                return fmt.Errorf("Error resolving local unixgram address '%s': %s",
                    o.LocalAddress, err.Error())
        if o.conn, err = net.DialUnix(o.Net, lAddr, unixAddr); err != nil {
            return fmt.Errorf("Can't connect to '%s': %s", o.Address,
    } else {
        var udpAddr, lAddr *net.UDPAddr
        if udpAddr, err = net.ResolveUDPAddr(o.Net, o.Address); err != nil {
            return fmt.Errorf("Error resolving UDP address '%s': %s", o.Address,
        if o.LocalAddress != "" {
            lAddr, err = net.ResolveUDPAddr(o.Net, o.LocalAddress)
            if err != nil {
                return fmt.Errorf("Error resolving local UDP address '%s': %s",
                    o.Address, err.Error())
        if o.conn, err = net.DialUDP(o.Net, lAddr, udpAddr); err != nil {
            return fmt.Errorf("Can't connect to '%s': %s", o.Address,

In addition to specifying configuration options that are specific to your plugin, it is also possible to use the config struct to specify default values for the ticker_interval and message_matcher values that are available to all Filter and Output plugins. If a config struct contains a uint attribute called TickerInterval, that will be used as a default ticker interval value (in seconds) if none is supplied in the TOML. Similarly, if a config struct contains a string attribute called MessageMatcher, that will be used as the default message routing rule if none is specified in the configuration file.

There is an optional configuration interface called WantsName. It provides a a plugin access to its configured name before the runner has started. The SandboxFilter plugin uses the name to locate/load any preserved state before being run:

type WantsName interface {
    SetName(name string)

There is also a similar WantsPipelineConfig interface that can be used if a plugin needs access to the active PipelineConfig or GlobalConfigStruct values in the ConfigStruct or Init methods. (If these values are needed in the Run method they can be retrieved from the PluginRunner.):

type WantsPipelineConfig interface {
    SetPipelineConfig(pConfig *pipeline.PipelineConfig)


Input plugins are responsible for acquiring data from the outside world and injecting this data into the Heka pipeline. An input might be passively listening for incoming network data or actively scanning external sources (either on the local machine or over a network). The input plugin interface is:

type Input interface {
    Run(ir InputRunner, h PluginHelper) (err error)

The Run method is called when Heka starts and, if all is functioning as intended, should not return until Heka is shut down. If a condition arises such that the input can not perform its intended activity it should return with an appropriate error, otherwise it should continue to run until a shutdown event is triggered by Heka calling the input’s Stop method, at which time any clean-up should be done and a clean shutdown should be indicated by returning a nil error.

Inside the Run method, an input has three primary responsibilities:

  1. Acquire information from the outside world
  2. Use acquired information to populate PipelinePack objects that can be processed by Heka.
  3. Pass the populated PipelinePack objects on to the appropriate next stage in the Heka pipeline (either to a decoder plugin so raw input data can be converted to a Message object, or by injecting them directly into the Heka message router if the Message object is already populated.)

The details of the first step are clearly entirely defined by the plugin’s intended input mechanism(s). Plugins can (and should!) spin up goroutines as needed to perform tasks such as listening on a network connection, making requests to external data sources, scanning machine resources and operational characteristics, reading files from a file system, etc.

For the second step, before you can populate a PipelinePack object you have to actually have one. You can get empty packs from a channel provided to you by the InputRunner. You get the channel itself by calling ir.InChan() and then pull a pack from the channel whenever you need one.

Often, populating a PipelinePack is as simple as storing the raw data that was retrieved from the outside world in the pack’s MsgBytes attribute. For efficiency’s sake, it’s best to write directly into the already allocated memory rather than overwriting the attribute with a []byte slice pointing to a new array. Overwriting the array is likely to lead to a lot of garbage collector churn.

The third step involves the input plugin deciding where next to pass the PipelinePack and then doing so. Once the MsgBytes attribute has been set the pack will typically be passed on to a decoder plugin, which will convert the raw bytes into a Message object, also an attribute of the PipelinePack. An input can gain access to the decoders that are available by calling PluginHelper.DecoderRunner, which can be used to access decoders by the name they have been registered as in the config. Each call to PluginHelper.DecoderRunner will spin up a new decoder in its own goroutine. It’s perfectly fine for an input to ask for multiple decoders; for instance the TcpInput creates one for each separate TCP connection. All decoders will be closed when Heka shuts down, but if a decoder will not longer be used (e.g. when a TCP connection is closed in the TcpInput example mentioned above) it’s a good idea to call PluginHelper.StopDecoderRunner to shut it down or else it will continue to consume system resources throughout the life of the Heka process.

It is up to the input to decide which decoder should be used. Once the decoder has been determined and fetched from the PluginHelper the input can call DecoderRunner.InChan() to fetch a DecoderRunner’s input channel upon which the PipelinePack can be placed.

Sometimes the input itself might wish to decode the data, rather than delegating that job to a separate decoder. In this case the input can directly populate the pack.Message and set the pack.Decoded value as true, as a decoder would do. Decoded messages are then injected into Heka’s routing system by calling InputRunner.Inject(pack). The message will then be delivered to the appropriate filter and output plugins.

One final important detail: if for any reason your input plugin should pull a PipelinePack off of the input channel and not end up passing it on to another step in the pipeline (i.e. to a decoder or to the router), you must call PipelinePack.Recycle() to free the pack up to be used again. Failure to do so will cause the PipelinePack pool to be depleted and will cause Heka to freeze.


Decoder plugins are responsible for converting raw bytes containing message data into actual Message struct objects that the Heka pipeline can process. As with inputs, the Decoder interface is quite simple:

type Decoder interface {
    Decode(pack *PipelinePack) (packs []*PipelinePack, err error)

There are two optional Decoder interfaces. The first provides the Decoder access to its DecoderRunner object when it is started:

type WantsDecoderRunner interface {
    SetDecoderRunner(dr DecoderRunner)

The second provides a notification to the Decoder when the DecoderRunner is exiting:

type WantsDecoderRunnerShutdown interface {

A decoder’s Decode method should extract the raw message data from pack.MsgBytes and attempt to deserialize this and use the contained information to populate the Message struct pointed to by the pack.Message attribute. Again, to minimize GC churn, take care to reuse the already allocated memory rather than creating new objects and overwriting the existing ones.

If the message bytes are decoded successfully then Decode should return a slice of PipelinePack pointers and a nil error value. The first item in the returned slice (i.e. packs[0]) should be the pack that was passed in to the method. If the decoding process produces more than one output pack, additonal packs can be appended to the slice.

If decoding fails for any reason, then Decode should return a nil value for the PipelinePack slice, causing the message to be dropped with no further processing. Returning an appropriate error value will cause Heka to log an error message about the decoding failure.


Filter plugins are the message processing engine of the Heka system. They are used to examine and process message contents, and trigger events based on those contents in real time as messages are flowing through the Heka system.

The filter plugin interface is just a single method:

type Filter interface {
    Run(r FilterRunner, h PluginHelper) (err error)

Like input plugins, filters have a Run method which accepts a runner and a helper, and which should not return until shutdown unless there’s an error condition. And like input plugins, filters should call runner.InChan() to gain access to the plugin’s input channel.

The similarities end there, however. A filter’s input channel provides pointers to PipelinePack objects, defined in pipeline_runner.go

The Pack contains a fully decoded Message object from which the filter can extract any desired information.

Upon processing a message, a filter plugin can perform any of three tasks:

  1. Pass the original message through unchanged to one or more specific alternative Heka filter or output plugins.
  2. Generate one or more new messages, which can be passed to either a specific set of Heka plugins, or which can be handed back to the router to be checked against all registered plugins’ message_matcher rules.
  3. Nothing (e.g. when performing counting / aggregation / roll-ups).

To pass a message through unchanged, a filter can call PluginHelper.Filter() or PluginHelper.Output() to access a filter or output plugin, and then call that plugin’s Deliver() method, passing in the PipelinePack.

To generate new messages, your filter must call PluginHelper.PipelinePack(msgLoopCount int). The msgloopCount value to be passed in should be obtained from the MsgLoopCount value on the PipelinePack that you’re already holding, or possibly zero if the new message is being triggered by a timed ticker instead of an incoming message. The PipelinePack method will either return a pack ready for you to populate or nil if the loop count is greater than the configured maximum value, as a safeguard against inadvertently creating infinite message loops.

Once a PipelinePack has been obtained, a filter plugin can populate its Message object. The pack can then be passed along to a specific plugin (or plugins) as above. Alternatively, the pack can be injected into the Heka message router queue, where it will be checked against all plugin message matchers, by passing it to the FilterRunner.Inject(pack *PipelinePack) method. Note that, again as a precaution against message looping, a plugin will not be allowed to inject a message which would get a positive response from that plugin’s own matcher.

Sometimes a filter will take a specific action triggered by a single incoming message. There are many cases, however, when a filter is merely collecting or aggregating data from the incoming messages, and instead will be sending out reports on the data that has been collected at specific intervals. Heka has built-in support for this use case. Any filter (or output) plugin can include a ticker_interval config setting (in seconds, integers only), which will automatically be extracted by Heka when the configuration is loaded. Then from within your plugin code you can call FilterRunner.Ticker() and you will get a channel (type <-chan time.Time) that will send a tick at the specified interval. Your plugin code can listen on the ticker channel and take action as needed.

Observant readers might have noticed that, unlike the Input interface, filters don’t need to implement a Stop method. Instead, Heka will communicate a shutdown event to filter plugins by closing the input channel from which the filter is receiving the PipelinePack objects. When this channel is closed, a filter should perform any necessary clean-up and then return from the Run method with a nil value to indicate a clean exit.

Finally, there is one very important point that all authors of filter plugins should keep in mind: if you are not passing your received PipelinePack object on to another filter or output plugin for further processing, then you must call PipelinePack.Recycle() to tell Heka that you are through with the pack. Failure to do so will cause Heka to not free up the packs for reuse, exhausting the supply and eventually causing the entire pipeline to freeze.


Encoder plugins are the inverse of decoders. They convert Message structs into raw bytes that can be delivered to the outside world. Some encoders will serialize an entire Message struct, such as the ProtobufEncoder which uses Heka’s native protocol buffers format. Other encoders extract data from the message and insert it into a different format such as plain text or JSON.

The Encoder interface consists of one method:

Encode(pack *PipelinePack) (output []byte, err error)

This method accepts a PiplelinePack containing a populated message object and returns a byte slice containing the data that should be sent out, or an error if serialization fails for some reason.

Unlike the other plugin types, encoders don’t have a PluginRunner, nor do they run in their own goroutines. Outputs invoke encoders directly, by calling the Encode method exposed on the OutputRunner. This has the same signature as the Encoder interface’s Encode method, to which it will will delegate. If use_framing is set to true in the output’s configuration, however, the OutputRunner will prepend Heka’s Stream Framing to the generated binary data.

Outputs can also directly access their encoder instance by calling OutputRunner.Encoder(). Encoders themselves don’t handle the stream framing, however, so it is recommended that outputs use the OutputRunner method instead.

Even though encoders don’t run in their own goroutines, it is possible that they might need to perform some clean up at shutdown time. If this is so, the encoder can implement the NeedsStopping interface:


And the Stop method will be called during the shutdown sequence.


Finally we come to the output plugins, which are responsible for receiving Heka messages and using them to generate interactions with the outside world. The Output interface is nearly identical to the Filter interface:

type Output interface {
    Run(or OutputRunner, h PluginHelper) (err error)

In fact, there are many ways in which filter and output plugins are similar. Like filters, outputs should call the InChan method on the provided runner to get an input channel, which will feed PipelinePack objects. Like filters, outputs should listen on this channel until it is closed, at which time they should perform any necessary clean-up and then return. And, like filters, any output plugin with a ticker_interval value in the configuration will use that value to create a ticker channel that can be accessed using the runner’s Ticker method. And, finally, outputs should also be sure to call PipelinePack.Recycle() when they finish w/ a pack so that Heka knows the pack is freed up for reuse.

The primary way that outputs differ from filters, of course, is that outputs need to serialize (or extract data from) the messages they receive and then send that data to an external destination. The serialization (or data extraction) should typically be performed by the output’s specified encoder plugin. The OutputRunner exposes the following methods to assist with this:

Encode(pack *PipelinePack) (output []byte, err error)
UsesFraming() bool
Encoder() (encoder Encoder)

The Encode method will use the specified encoder to convert the pack’s message to binary data, then if use_framing was set to true in the output’s configuration it will prepend Heka’s Stream Framing. The UsesFraming method will tell you whether or not use_framing was set to true. Finally, the Encoder method will return the actual encoder that was registered. This is useful to check to make sure that an encoder was actually registered, but generally you will want to use OutputRunner.Encode and not Encoder.Encode, since the latter will not honor the output’s use_framing specification.

Registering Your Plugin

The last step you have to take after implementing your plugin is to register it with hekad so it can actually be configured and used. You do this by calling the pipeline package’s RegisterPlugin function:

func RegisterPlugin(name string, factory func() interface{})

The name value should be a unique identifier for your plugin, and it should end in one of “Input”, “Decoder”, “Filter”, or “Output”, depending on the plugin type.

The factory value should be a function that returns an instance of your plugin, usually a pointer to a struct, where the pointer type implements the Plugin interface and the interface appropriate to its type (i.e. Input, Decoder, Filter, or Output).

This sounds more complicated than it is. Here are some examples from Heka itself:

RegisterPlugin("UdpInput", func() interface{} {return new(UdpInput)})
RegisterPlugin("TcpInput", func() interface{} {return new(TcpInput)})
RegisterPlugin("ProtobufDecoder", func() interface{} {return new(ProtobufDecoder)})
RegisterPlugin("CounterFilter", func() interface{} {return new(CounterFilter)})
RegisterPlugin("StatFilter", func() interface{} {return new(StatFilter)})
RegisterPlugin("LogOutput", func() interface{} {return new(LogOutput)})
RegisterPlugin("FileOutput", func() interface{} {return new(FileOutput)})

It is recommended that RegisterPlugin calls be put in your Go package’s init() function so that you can simply import your package when building hekad and the package’s plugins will be registered and available for use in your Heka config file. This is made a bit easier if you use plugin_loader.cmake, see Building hekad with External Plugins.